HOA Financial Best Practices

Homeowner associations (HOAs) are responsible for managing the finances of their community. This includes collecting dues, budgeting for expenses, and maintaining financial records. 

Most of the time, this runs like a well-oiled machine. Residents pay their dues on time, expenses are carefully planned and managed, and financial reports are accurate and transparent.

However, there are times when an HOA may run into financial troubles. This can be due to various factors such as unexpected maintenance costs, delinquent dues payments, or mismanagement of funds.

  • Hidden
  • Hidden
    MM slash DD slash YYYY
  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

To avoid these issues, it’s important for HOAs to have a set of best practices in place for managing their finances. Because rather than making decisions on a case-by-case basis, having established guidelines can help prevent potential financial problems from arising in the first place. 

That way, when your HOA has an online vote on initiatives or financial moves, you’ll have clear buy in because of clear transparency!


Key Components and Reports of HOA Financials

Aren’t HOA financials just the collecting and spending of money? Actually, there’s much more to it than that. HOA financials include a variety of components and reports that provide a comprehensive view of the association’s financial health.

These documents are crucial for board members, property managers, and homeowners to understand the financial status of their community.

1. Balance Sheet

The balance sheet is a snapshot of the HOA’s financial position at a specific point in time. It typically includes:

  • Assets: Cash on hand, accounts receivable (unpaid dues), and the value of any property owned by the HOA.
  • Liabilities: Outstanding debts, accounts payable, and any loans the HOA has taken out.
  • Equity: The difference between assets and liabilities, representing the HOA’s net worth.

A healthy HOA balance sheet should show sufficient assets to cover liabilities and maintain a positive equity position. This allows for the HOA to handle unexpected expenses and maintain a stable financial position.

2. Income Statement (Profit and Loss Statement)

The income statement, also known as a profit and loss statement, shows the HOA’s revenue and expenses over a specific period of time. This document helps board members and property managers track where money is coming from and where it is being spent. It typically includes:

  • Income: Primarily from member dues, but may also include fees from amenities, interest on investments, or other sources.
  • Expenses: Broken down into categories such as maintenance, utilities, insurance, and administrative costs.
  • Net Income: The difference between total income and total expenses.

The income statement helps track whether the HOA is operating within its budget and identifies areas where costs may be higher or lower than expected.



3. Cash Flow Statement

This document tracks the inflow and outflow of cash in the HOA. It’s particularly important for understanding:

  • Operating Activities: Cash generated from dues collection and spent on day-to-day operations.
  • Investing Activities: Cash used for long-term investments or received from the sale of assets.
  • Financing Activities: Cash received from loans or used to pay off debts.

A positive cash flow is crucial for an HOA to meet its financial obligations and avoid liquidity issues. If your HOA finds itself with a negative cash flow, it may need to reevaluate its spending and budgeting practices.

4. Budget vs. Actual Report

The budget is perhaps the most crucial document for an HOA’s financial management. It outlines the expected income and expenses for a specific period, usually one year. A well-planned budget can help an HOA allocate resources effectively and achieve its financial goals.

  • Budgeted amounts for each income and expense category
  • Actual amounts received or spent
  • Variances between budgeted and actual amounts
  • Year-to-date totals

This report is essential for identifying areas where the HOA may be over or under budget and adjusting financial strategies accordingly.

5. Accounts Receivable Aging Report

This report tracks unpaid dues and assessments, categorizing them by how long they’ve been overdue. It typically breaks down receivables into 30, 60, 90, and 90+ day categories. This report is crucial for:

  • Identifying delinquent accounts
  • Planning collection efforts
  • Assessing the overall financial health of the community

A high level of delinquencies can signal potential cash flow issues for the HOA.

6. Reserve Study

While not a financial statement per se, the reserve study is a crucial component of HOA financials. It includes:

  • An inventory of all major common area components
  • The estimated useful life of each component
  • The estimated cost to repair or replace each component
  • A recommended funding plan to ensure adequate reserves

The reserve study helps the HOA plan for long-term expenses and maintain the community’s infrastructure. For example, if the study shows that the roof of a building will need to be replaced in 10 years, the HOA can start budgeting for that expense now rather than being caught off guard when it becomes an urgent and costly issue.



7. General Ledger

The general ledger is a detailed record of all financial transactions within the HOA. It includes:

  • Date of each transaction
  • Description of the transaction
  • Amount debited or credited
  • Running balance

While not typically shared with all homeowners, the general ledger is an important tool for maintaining accurate financial records and conducting audits. Board members should be familiar with how to read and interpret these reports, and homeowners should have access to most of these documents (with the exception of detailed personal information in the accounts receivable report) to ensure transparency in the HOA’s financial operations.

HOA Financial Best Practices

HOA Financial Best Practices

1. Implement a Robust Budgeting Process

A well-structured budget is the foundation of sound HOA financial management. Here’s how to create and maintain an effective budgeting process:

Start Early

Begin your budgeting process at least 3-4 months before the end of the fiscal year. This gives you ample time to gather necessary information, conduct thorough analysis, and make informed decisions.

Review Historical Data

Analyze the past 2-3 years of financial data. Look for trends in income and expenses, noting any significant changes or anomalies. This historical perspective helps in making more accurate projections for the coming year.

Involve Key Stakeholders

Form a budget committee that includes board members, the property manager, and if possible, homeowners with financial expertise. This diverse group can provide valuable insights and perspectives.

Use Zero-Based Budgeting

Instead of simply adjusting the previous year’s budget, start from zero and justify each expense. This approach helps eliminate unnecessary costs and ensures that every dollar is allocated purposefully.

Plan for Contingencies

Set aside 5-10% of your total budget for unexpected expenses. This buffer can help manage unforeseen circumstances without derailing your financial plan.

Factor in potential increases in service contracts, utilities, and other recurring expenses. A good rule of thumb is to assume a 3-5% increase unless you have specific information suggesting otherwise.

Balance Short-Term and Long-Term Needs

While addressing immediate needs is crucial, don’t neglect long-term financial health. Ensure your budget includes adequate contributions to your reserve fund.

Seek Professional Review & Communicate

Consider having your proposed budget reviewed by a CPA or financial advisor specializing in HOA finances. Their expertise can help identify potential issues or areas for improvement.

Once the budget is drafted, share it with homeowners, along with a clear explanation of any significant changes or new initiatives. This transparency helps build trust and understanding within the community.

2. Maintain Adequate Reserves

A well-funded reserve is crucial for the long-term financial health of an HOA. Here’s how to ensure your reserves are adequate:

Conduct Regular Reserve Studies

Engage a professional to conduct a reserve study every 3-5 years, or more frequently if your community is older or has complex infrastructure. This study should include:

  • A complete inventory of all common area components
  • The current condition of each component
  • Estimated remaining useful life
  • Projected replacement or major repair costs
  • A recommended funding plan

Set Clear Funding Goals

While 100% funding is ideal, it’s not always practical. Aim for at least 70% funding as a minimum goal. This means having 70% of the funds that would be required if all components needed replacement immediately.

Make Consistent Contributions & Keep Reserves Separate

Include reserve fund contributions in your annual budget. These should be based on the recommendations from your most recent reserve study. Avoid the temptation to underfund reserves to keep HOA dues artificially low.

Maintain a separate bank account for reserve funds. This prevents commingling with operating funds and ensures that reserve money is not inadvertently used for day-to-day expenses.

Invest Wisely

While safety should be the primary concern, consider investing reserve funds in low-risk, interest-bearing accounts to maximize growth. Options might include:

  • High-yield savings accounts
  • Certificates of Deposit (CDs)
  • Treasury securities

Always consult with a financial advisor to ensure your investment strategy aligns with your state’s laws and your HOA’s governing documents.

Review and Adjust Regularly

At least annually, review your reserve fund status and adjust contributions if necessary. Factors that might necessitate changes include:

  • Unexpected repairs or replacements
  • Changes in component life expectancies
  • Significant changes in replacement costs
  • Investment performance

Plan for Special Assessments as a Last Resort

While adequate reserves should minimize the need for special assessments, have a clear process in place for implementing them if absolutely necessary. This should include:

  • Criteria for when a special assessment is warranted
  • A transparent decision-making process
  • Clear communication with homeowners about the need and intended use of the funds




3. Establish Strong Financial Controls and Procedures

Implementing robust financial controls is crucial for preventing fraud, ensuring accuracy, and maintaining the trust of homeowners. When members vote for different HOA initiatives, they’ll want to know that the actions being taken are in the best interest of the community and their financial contributions.

Segregation of Duties

Divide financial responsibilities among multiple individuals to reduce the risk of fraud or errors. For example:

  • One person should receive and deposit checks
  • Another should reconcile bank statements
  • A third should approve expenditures

Implement a dual signature policy for checks or fund transfers above a certain amount (e.g., $1,000). This ensures that large expenditures are reviewed and approved by at least two board members.

Regular Bank Reconciliations

Reconcile bank statements monthly. This process should be performed by someone who doesn’t handle deposits or write checks. Any discrepancies should be investigated promptly.

Create a Clear Approval & Document Retention Policy

Establish a clear process for approving expenses. This might include:

  • A purchase order system for larger expenses
  • Pre-approved spending limits for routine maintenance
  • Board approval required for expenses over a certain threshold

Develop a policy for retaining financial records. Most experts recommend keeping records for at least seven years. Ensure that records are stored securely and backed up regularly.

Implement Regular Financial Reviews

Conduct internal financial reviews quarterly. These reviews should be performed by board members or committee members who are not involved in day-to-day financial operations.

Consider an annual audit or review by a CPA depending on the size of your HOA and state requirements. This provides an independent verification of your financial statements and can identify areas for improvement.

4. Implement Effective Collections Procedures

Timely collection of assessments is crucial for maintaining the HOA’s cash flow. Here’s how to establish effective collections procedures:

Clear Collection Policy

Develop a written collection policy that outlines:

  • Due dates for assessments
  • Grace periods
  • Late fees and interest charges
  • The collections process for delinquent accounts

Ensure this policy complies with state laws and your HOA’s governing documents. Apply the collection policy consistently to all homeowners. This helps avoid claims of discrimination and ensures fairness.

Don’t Fear Early Intervention

Act quickly when an account becomes delinquent. Send reminder notices as soon as an assessment is late. The longer an account remains unpaid, the harder it becomes to collect.

Offer Online Payments and Payment Plans

Online payments allow for quicker and more convenient payment options for homeowners. This can increase the likelihood of on-time payments and reduces the risk of delinquency. 

Consider offering payment plans to homeowners experiencing temporary financial hardship. This can help maintain a positive relationship with residents while ensuring the HOA receives the funds it needs.

Use of Collection Agencies

For seriously delinquent accounts, consider using a professional collection agency. Ensure any agency you use complies with the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA).

As a last resort, be prepared to file liens on properties with seriously delinquent accounts. Ensure you follow all legal requirements for lien filing in your state.

Maintain Confidentiality

While reporting on delinquencies is essential, always maintain the confidentiality of individual homeowners. Report on overall delinquency rates rather than naming specific individuals.

Help Your HOA Thrive With These Financial Best Practices

Help Your HOA Thrive With These Financial Best Practices

These financial best practices can significantly improve your HOA’s financial health and stability. Remember, the goal is to ensure the association’s financial stability while also meeting its members’ needs and expectations.

Every HOA is unique, and these best practices may need to be adapted to fit your specific community’s needs. It’s always advisable to consult with financial professionals and legal experts familiar with HOA management to ensure your practices comply with local laws and regulations.

With sound financial management, your association will be well-equipped to handle both current needs and future challenges, ensuring its long-term success and the satisfaction of the residents. Win-win!


What should an HOA budget include?

An HOA budget should include all anticipated income (such as member dues and fees) and expenses (including maintenance, utilities, insurance, and reserve fund contributions). It should also account for potential increases in costs and include a contingency fund for unexpected expenses.

How often should an HOA conduct a reserve study?

Most experts recommend conducting a reserve study every 3-5 years or more frequently for older communities or those with complex infrastructure. Some states have specific requirements, so check your local regulations.

What is a good rule of thumb for HOA reserves?

While 100% funding is ideal, many experts recommend maintaining at least 70% funding in your reserves. This means having 70% of the funds that would be required if all components needed immediate replacement.

Can HOA reserve funds be used for operating expenses?

Generally, reserve funds should not be used for operating expenses. They are intended for major repairs and replacements. Using reserve funds for day-to-day expenses can lead to underfunded reserves and potential special assessments in the future.



How do I understand HOA financial statements?

Key HOA financial statements include the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement. Familiarize yourself with these documents and don’t hesitate to ask questions. Many HOAs offer financial workshops for homeowners to better understand these statements.

What is the HOA budget approval process?

Typically, the board drafts a budget, which is then presented to homeowners for review. Many HOAs hold a budget ratification meeting where homeowners can ask questions. The budget is often considered approved unless a majority of homeowners vote to reject it.

Get started today

HOA Start software and our community website support provide all the tools you need to operate your association efficiently and effectively. Are you ready to take the next step? Join the network of HOA Start customers and share the success with your community. Call 863-462-7483 to speak with a team member, or click here to send us an e-mail message today.

Submit your question and learn more about how HOA Start can power up your community

We would love to hear from you.
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
    MM slash DD slash YYYY
  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.
Let your new community website be a SHOWSTOPPER! Contact us today to request your FREE TRIAL. We are here to help get you up and running in no time.


Get Started